Saturday, February 22, 2020

Structure and Framework of the Federal Courts Research Paper

Structure and Framework of the Federal Courts - Research Paper Example It is also out of the recognition that the constitution has for the broad nature of legal enforcement and the need to ensure that administration of justice and the enforcement of rule of law goes to the grassroots that there exists different parts and ranks of the court system, which is specifically assigned to interpret the constitution. This paper shall therefore visit the court system as the major framework that embodies the legal system and bring out the structure and role of the federal courts. Purpose and Function of the Topic One key aspect of the legal system in the United States and most other democratic states like United Kingdom and France is the court and the structure of it. In the United States, there is what is known as the Federal Court system, which has been vested with the power of interpretation of the law at the local level2. In essence therefore, the present topic, which is stated as â€Å"the structure and framework of the federal courts† seeks to achieve three major functions and purposes. The first purpose and function of the topic is to aid in the categorization of the federal court system. From a Congress viewpoint, the Supreme Court is the highest court in the land3. This Supreme court is overseen by a Chief Justice and eight other associate justices. But even within the Supreme Court, there are two constitutes of courts, which are the Appellate Court and Trail Courts. These bring the categorization down to smaller courts, which are made up of District Courts and Circuit Courts. In order to ensure that there is not at any point in time overburden on the courts in the jurisdiction of justice, there are as many minor courts as possible, all of whom have been assigned special duties, cases and roles to oversee and hear. Some of these include bankruptcy courts, magistrate courts, the U.S. Court of Claims, the U.S. Court of Veterans' Appeals, the U.S. Court of Military Appeals, the U.S. Tax Court, and the U.S. Court of International Trade. The second purpose and function of the topic is to clearly outline what the differences between a State Court and a Federal Court are. This is an important purpose to achieve with the topic because in a bid to educating the ordinary citizen of the legal system, it is very important for the citizen to have an idea of where to turn to in the event of different cases of legal concern. To this end, it would be said that unlike Federal Courts, most State Courts have very limited jurisdictions. From a legal perspective, this means that State Courts do not have as much power to trail wider range of cases as Federal Courts do4. Because of this, most judges in State Courts are appointed or elected only over a specified time frame and not for life as it is with Federal Courts. Some of the cases that a typical State Court would trail is reflective in the name of the court. Examples are probate court, family court, traffic court, municipal court, small claims court and juvenile court. F inally, this topic seeks to expatiate on the effectiveness of the sovereignty of the various levels of the Federal Court in the legal system and structure of the country. Indeed, one of the main principles on which the legal system works is the principle of independence. This means that every court must be given maximum room to operate without any form of interference from

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Micro8 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Micro8 - Essay Example e Americas Cup sailboat races increases interest in sailing, it will have two effects: raising the equilibrium quantity and raising the price of sailboats. There will be a shift towards the right for the demand curve, driving price and quantity. b) If producers expect the price of sailboats to rise next year, there will be two effects: the lowering quantity supplied and raising the price of the sales boat. The will be a leftward shift of the supply curve. c) If the cost of fiberglass used in the production of sailboats increases the supply of the sailboats will lower and the price will increase. The supply curve shifts rightward driving the price and quantity as indicated in the graph. a) Price elasticity of demand for food is higher in Tanzania than United States because of the difference in average income. The larger the amount of income spent on food purchases, the larger is the price elasticity of demand for food (Parkin, 2007, p.93). The average income in Tanzania is very low when compared to that of United States, implying that the proportion of income spent of food is large. This high price elasticity imply that much of the income in Tanzania is spent on food purchases while only a small amount of income is spent on food in US. Note that the high price elasticity does not mean that food purchases in Tanzania are more compared to US, but only indicate income spending on food. b) Tax on gasoline will provide more tax revenue than tax on restaurant meals. This is because gasoline does not have really close substitutes like restaurant meals. Despite the price changes in gasoline, automobiles must drive on the product. However, if restaurant meals became expensive, people may opt to cook by themselves and evade the high prices of restaurant meals. Therefore, tax revenue which is dependent on the quantity of goods sold and tax will be higher for gasoline than restaurant meals. a) Consumer surplus at the competitive equilibrium = the area above the price

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Western society Essay Example for Free

Western society Essay Marie Chiu is a Chinese national who is now residing in the United States and is studying at a Californian State as a Middle School Student. She has moved to US because of the urge of her parents for her to take her studies and later on work in the said country. She is currently living with her parents in California as she takes her studies in a state university. Memory and Learning Humans as individually different as they are, have different terms of learning that actually helps them in becoming the persons that they are at present and further towards the future. The ability of humans to remember the impact of the past experiences that they once had and the persistence that they have towards understanding the situations that they dealt with before makes them a lot stronger in facing the changes as well as the challenges that they need to understand for the sake of establishing their future. Memory and Learning- THE Interview As an Asian, it was not that easy for her to adjust to the western lifestyle. Although she has her parents right beside her, it could not be denied that the effort she places on actually being able to adjust with the American lifestyle has brought her stress during her first months of staying in the country. Today however, she has already been able to cope up with the said adjustments after being able to stay in the US for at least a year now. As a cognitive learner, she says that her being able to understand and immediately adapt to the culture of a foreign land. She primarily used her experiences as well as the moral learning she particularly gained from her ancestors in China to be able to face the challenges that she needed to face the new life offered to her in the United States. As a student, she is able to remember as much information as she could retain in her mind. Most of the time, she notes this particular ability in connection with her wanting of becoming a fast learner as she actually feels the pressure and the need of being one especially that she is living in a new society. She points out further that this attitude towards learning particularly sprung out from her wanting to adjust faster to the American society. As part of the learning process, she prefers learning necessary informations on the western culture as well as with her studies [formal education] in people-filled areas. She noted that this procedure has actually helped her see how the things she reads from the book is seen accurately applied with the people’s dealings as she sees them. She further explains that this is the process by which she integrates reading and observing at the same time. IT is through this that she is able to see the accuracy of what she learns from the books. Personality Development Society is generally composed of individuals who have multi-diverse personality and characteristics as influenced by many social factors including philosophy and culture. In this aspect, many social factors influenced and affect the development of the individual resulting to its uniqueness from the general field. Each person has his or her own personality based mainly on his or her philosophy, culture, lifestyle and others. One of the most influential sociological factor in the modern society is the perspective of interactionism. In this sociological perspective, individuals in the society have the philosophy wherein they can eliminate or negate the effects particularly the negative side of social labeling. This promotes the personal view that individuals can breakthrough the sociological definition of their existence levied upon them by the society as a whole. In addition, the sociological perspective of interactionism points out the individuals can resist against the influence of sociological status quo in the development of the personality of each individual. Thus, this sociological perspective ideally promotes the concept of individual rights for their own free will. Personality Development- The Interview As a non-native American, her personality has been mainly influenced by her traditional origins and the influences that she primarily received from transferring in the country. Moreover, she was able the fact that she was able to adapt to the American lifestyle already, she is then considered reformed as a person. In terms of culture and social awareness, Anna Marie Chiu is now more open to accepting the different dimensions of cultural changes especially if she knows that those changes would do her well as an individual. During her examination at school, she remembers taking the Myers Briggs Test [which is an examination aimed to scale the personality of an individual based upon the measurements of attitude that the questionnaires are based from]. As she took the said examination, she was able to understand why she is the way she is. She considers the examination results highly accurate and considerably acceptable on her part. The understanding particularly placed on her being culturally different from the society that she is presently living in actually convinced her that the examination results actually showed her how she could be able to adjust to the Western society through utilizing her strengths as an individual and at the same time regulating her weaknesses.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Southworths Brilliant Writing Essay -- Biography Biographies Essays

Southworth's Brilliant Writing    Few nineteenth-century American women novelists met with success equal to that of Emma Dorothy Eliza Nevitte Southworth (E.D.E.N. Southworth). Harriet Beecher Stowe, Susan Warner, Fanny Fern, and others certainly sold record numbers of individual novels; however, E.D.E.N. Southworth's over 40 novels consistently became best-sellers throughout a 44-year career, making her, over time, perhaps the best-selling author, male or female, of her generation. Her stories entered into the American consciousness--becoming popular plays, shaping fashion trends, developing women's visions of themselves--as well as shaped the image of "Americanness" in the minds of international readers around the globe. In particular, Southworth's novels taught the world a vision of the American woman that equaled in power and influence James Fenimore Cooper's presentation of the American man that so captured international attention. Back at home, reviewers, critics, and other novelists either praised or rejected the immense energy of her writing, her vision, calling her the best novelist of the age or, conversely, attacking the unladylike exuberance of her prose or themes. Her primacy forced the literary world to respond--either as lovers or haters. Southworth's life trials shaped the fiction writer she became. As a woman repeatedly placed on the margins--by poverty, neglect, social stratification, status as an abandoned woman--Southworth learned to speak the language of the dispossessed. In an era when debates over human rights dominated the political and social landscape, Southworth wrote fiction celebrating strong independent women, aboli... ... to rewrite nineteenth-century literary history to include Southworth, for she reflected and commented upon the social realities for women in her time, argued for human rights for many without voices, and promoted tolerance of religion, race, and class, and in doing so, captured the imagination of generations of readers. In her own time, Southworth's voice certainly carried far, reaching across the country and over the oceans to England, France, Germany, and Iceland to touch the hearts and minds of millions. She deserves a place in literary history, not only for the impact she had on readers, but also for the lessons she teaches us about nineteenth-century culture, social tensions, and gender, class, and race ideology. Southworth stands, then as now, as a vital figure in the development of the novel in America.   

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Crime and Best Glorification

The best glorification of crime and criminals seems to be portrayed in the news, TV, and movies. Often you will see how a bank robber will get away with the cash and never get caught. In movies criminals seem to get away with their crimes if in some way the crime is justified. In today’s world it sometimes appears to be easier if you’re the bad guy. This mind set is due to the portrayal of the criminal in movies and on the news. A prime example of glorifying a criminal would be CSI. CIS is a television show that is based on crime scenes and criminal minds. CSI goes into a criminals mind and show how and why I crime happens. This makes the criminal mind seem fascinating and sometimes portrays the criminal as a genius. I feel almost making the crime and criminal as famous and as powerful as the show it’s self. Another example would be Law Abiding Citizen. The main character goes on a killing spire on the justice center of Philadelphia. Even though he has killed so many people you still feel sympathetic towards him because his family was brutally raped and murdered and the justice center did nothing. Due to the circumstances he decided to take actions in to his own hands. This movie, in many ways, makes the crimes and the criminal more glorious as if he had done the right thing. The news is another example of glorifying crime and criminals. The news often talks about how cops can not control gangs, how the gangs are growing and becoming more powerful. This makes the gangs more glorious and, in ways, only adds power to the gang. For young children growing up in gang-ran areas this may push them to join because of the media’s portrayal of the power associated with gangs. The best glorification of crime and criminals seems to be portrayed in the news, TV, and movies. The media truly seems to make it look easier to be the bad guy. In today’s news and movies the criminals seems to be powerful or justified.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Markthal Rotterdam And Port City Urban Design - 1749 Words

Markthal Rotterdam and Port City Urban Design Rotterdam is known as the Netherlands number one city for architecture (Groenendijk, 2015, p. 114). It is easy to see why when one considers the overwhelming number of iconic buildings in the city, and how those individual buildings, while creating a cohesive city, have managed to and continue to transform Rotterdam. Markthal Rotterdam, one of the iconic buildings, is an award winning combination of open-air market, department store, shopping centre and residential building. It won the 2016 Rotterdam Architecture Award and the German Council of Shopping Centres award for European Innovation (Rotterdamer architekturpreis fà ¼r die Markthal, 2016, 126). Markthal Rotterdam was designed by†¦show more content†¦8). The idea of completely reconstructing the historical city centre to its previous splendor was discarded by van Traa and a new spatial layout designed to separate functions and accommodate traffic was developed (Groenendij k, 2015, p. 8). Nonetheless, the fire line of the German bombing is still visible due to the difference between the old, nineteenth-century buildings and the new, post-war construction (Groenendijk, 2015, p. 18). The Basic Plan for Reconstruction implemented an efficient traffic plan on an orthogonal grid and the separation of functions was influenced by modernist urban planning ides. However, the Basic Plan only governed urban planning in Rotterdam until the 1970s when criticism of the emptiness, lack of housing, and lack of warmth was overwhelming (Groenendijk, 2015, p. 19). For example, in the book De binnenstadsbeleving en Rotterdam (The Inner City Experience and Rotterdam), R. Wenholt criticized the reconstruction of Rotterdam in the late 1960s stating that the inner city failed at providing a vibrant, varied, convivial, pleasant, intimate city (Meyer, 1999, p.328). The Markthal Rotterdam addresses the criticism of the Basic Plan, although the outdated Basic Plan didn t directl y influence its design, by creating a vibrant welcoming public square

Friday, December 27, 2019

Saigo Takamori The Last Samurai

Saigo Takamori of Japan is known as the Last Samurai, who lived from 1828 to 1877 and is remembered to this day as the epitome of bushido, the samurai code. Although much of his history has been lost, recent scholars have discovered clues to the true nature of this illustrious warrior and diplomat. From humble beginnings in the capital of Satsuma, Saigo followed the path of the samurai through his brief exile and would go on to lead reform in the Meiji government, eventually dying for his cause—leaving a lasting impact on the people and culture of 1800s Japan. Early Life of the Last Samurai Saigo Takamori was born on January 23, 1828, in Kagoshima, Satsumas capital, the oldest of seven children. His father, Saigo Kichibei, was a low-ranking samurai tax official who only managed to scrape by despite his samurai status. As a result, Takamori and his siblings all shared a single blanket at night even though they were large people, sturdy with a few standing over six feet tall. Takamoris parents also had to borrow money to buy farmland in order to have enough food for the growing family. This upbringing instilled a sense of dignity, frugality, and honor in young Saigo. At age six, Saigo Takamori started at the local goju—or samurai  elementary school—and got his first wakizashi, the short sword used by samurai warriors. He excelled more as a scholar than a warrior, reading extensively before he graduated from school at 14 and was formally introduced to the Satsuma in 1841. Three years later, he began work in the local bureaucracy as an agricultural adviser, where he continued to work through his brief, childless arranged marriage to 23-year-old Ijuin Suga in 1852. Not long after the wedding, both of Saigos parents died, leaving Saigo as the head of a family of twelve with little income to support them. Politics in Edo (Tokyo) Shortly thereafter, Saigo was promoted to the post of daimyos attendant in 1854 and accompanied his lord to Edo on alternate attendance, taking a 900-mile-long walk to the shoguns capital, where the young man would work as his lords gardener, unofficial spy, and confident. Soon, Saigo was Daimyo Shimazu Nariakiras closest adviser, consulting other national figures on affairs including the shogunal succession. Nariakira and his allies sought to increase the emperors power at the expense of the shogun, but on July 15, 1858, Shimazu died suddenly, likely of poison. As was the tradition for samurai in the event of their lords death, Saigo contemplated committing to accompany Shimazu into death, but the monk Gessho convinced him to live and continue his political work to honor Nariakiras memory instead. However, the shogun began to purge pro-imperial politicians, forcing Gessho to seek Saigos help in escaping to Kagoshima, where the new Satsuma daimyo, unfortunately, refused to protect the pair from shogun officials. Rather than facing arrest, Gessho and Saigo jumped from a skiff into Kagoshima Bay and were pulled from the water by the boats crew—regrettably, Gessho could not be revived. The Last Samurai in Exile The shoguns men were still hunting him, so Saigo went into a three-year internal exile on the small island of Amami Oshima. He changed his name to Saigo Sasuke, and the domain government declared him dead. Other imperial loyalists wrote to him for advice on politics, so despite his exile and officially dead status, he continued to have an impact in Kyoto. By 1861, Saigo was well-integrated into the local community. Some children had pestered him into becoming their teacher, and the kind-hearted giant complied. He also married a local woman named  Aigana and fathered a son. He was settling happily into island life but reluctantly had to leave the island in February of 1862 when he was called back to Satsuma. Despite a rocky relationship with the new daimyo of Satsuma, Nariakiras half-brother Hisamitsu, Saigo soon was back in the fray. He went to the Emperors court in Kyoto in March and was amazed to meet samurai from other domains who treated him with reverence for his defense of Gessho. His political organizing ran afoul of the new daimyo, however, who had him arrested and banished to a different small island just four months after his return from Amami. Saigo was getting accustomed to the second island when he was transferred to a desolate penal island further south, where he spent more than a year on that dreary rock, returning to Satsuma only in February of 1864. Just four days after his return, he had an audience with the daimyo, Hisamitsu, who shocked him by appointing him commander of the Satsuma army in Kyoto. Return to the Capital In the Emperors capital, politics had changed significantly during Saigos exile. Pro-emperor daimyo and radicals called for an end to the shogunate and the expulsion of all foreigners. They saw Japan as the abode of gods—since the Emperor descended from the Sun Goddess—and believed that the heavens would protect them from the western military and economic might. Saigo supported a stronger role for the Emperor  but distrusted the others millennial rhetoric. Small-scale rebellions broke out around Japan, and the shoguns troops proved shockingly unable to put down the uprisings. The Tokugawa regime was falling apart, but it had not yet occurred to Saigo that a future Japanese government might not include a shogun—after all, the shoguns had ruled Japan  for 800 years. As commander of Satsumas troops, Saigo led an 1864 punitive expedition against the Choshu domain, whose army in Kyoto had opened fire on the Emperors residence. Along with troops from Aizu, Saigos massive army marched on Choshu, where he negotiated a peaceful settlement rather than launching an attack. Later this would turn out to be a pivotal decision since Choshu was Satsumas major ally in the Boshin War. Saigos nearly bloodless victory won him national fame, eventually leading to his appointment as an elder of Satsuma in September of 1866. Fall of the Shogun At the same time, the shoguns government in Edo was increasingly tyrannical, trying to keep a hold on power. It threatened an all-out attack on Choshu, even though it did not have the military might to defeat that large domain. Bonded by their distaste for the shogunate, Choshu and Satsuma gradually formed an alliance. On December 25, 1866, the 35-year-old Emperor Komei suddenly died. He was succeeded by his 15-year-old son, Mutsuhito, who would later become known as the Meiji Emperor. During 1867, Saigo and officials from Choshu and Tosa made plans to bring down the Tokugawa bakufu. On January 3, 1868, the Boshin War began with Saigos army of 5,000 marching forward to attack the shoguns army, numbering three times as many men. The shogunates troops were well-armed, but their leaders had no consistent strategy, and they failed to cover their own flanks. On the third day of battle, the artillery division from Tsu domain defected to Saigos side and began to shell the shoguns army instead. By May, Saigos army had surrounded Edo and threatened to attack, forcing the shoguns government to surrender. The formal ceremony took place on April 4, 1868, and the former shogun was even allowed to keep his head! However, Northeastern domains led by Aizu continued to fight on the shoguns behalf until September., when they surrendered to Saigo, who treated them fairly, furthering his fame as a symbol of samurai virtue. Forming the Meiji Government After the Boshin War, Saigo retired to hunt, fish, and soak in hot springs. Like all other times in his life, though, his retirement was short-lived—in January of 1869, the Satsuma daimyo made him a counselor of the domains government. Over the next two years, the government seized land from the elite samurai and redistributed profits to lower ranked warriors. It began to promote samurai officials based on talent, rather than rank, and also encouraged the development of modern industry. In Satsuma and the rest of Japan, though, it was not clear whether reforms like these were sufficient, or if the entire social and political systems were due for a revolutionary change. It turned out the be the latter—the emperors government in Tokyo wanted a new, centralized system, not just a collection of more efficient, self-governing domains.   In order to concentrate power, Tokyo needed a national military, rather than relying on the domain lords to supply troops.  In April of 1871, Saigo was persuaded to return to Tokyo to organize the new national army. With an army in place, the Meiji government summoned the remaining daimyo to Tokyo in mid-July, 1871 and abruptly announced that the domains were dissolved and the lords authorities abolished. Saigos own daimyo, Hisamitsu, was the only one who publicly railed against the decision, leaving Saigo tormented by the idea that he had betrayed his domain lord. In 1873, the central government began to conscript commoners as soldiers, replacing the samurai. Debate over Korea Meanwhile, the Joseon Dynasty in Korea refused to recognize the Mutsuhito as an emperor, because it traditionally recognized only the Chinese emperor as such—all other rulers were mere kings. The Korean government even went as far as having a prefect publicly state that by adopting western-style customs and clothing, Japan had become a barbarian nation. By early 1873, Japanese militarists who interpreted this as a grave affront called for an invasion of Korea but in a July meeting that year, Saigo opposed sending warships to Korea. He argued that Japan should use diplomacy, rather than resorting to force, and offered to head a delegation himself. Saigo suspected that the Koreans might assassinate him, but felt that his death would be worthwhile if it gave Japan a truly legitimate reason to attack its neighbor. In October, the prime minister announced that Saigo would not be allowed to travel to Korea as an emissary. In disgust, Saigo resigned as the army general, imperial councilor, and commander of the imperial guards the next day. Forty-six other military officers from the southwest resigned as well, and government officials feared that Saigo would lead a coup. Instead, he went home to Kagoshima. In the end, the dispute with Korea came to a head only in 1875 when a Japanese ship sailed to Korean shores, provoking artillery there into opening fire. Then, Japan attacked forcing the Joseon king to sign an unequal treaty, which eventually led to the outright annexation of Korea in 1910. Saigo was disgusted by this treacherous tactic as well. Another Brief Respite from Politics Saigo Takamori had led the way in Meiji reforms including the creation of a conscript army and the end of daimyo rule. However, disgruntled samurai in Satsuma viewed him as a symbol of traditional virtues and wanted him to lead them in opposition to the Meiji state. After his retirement, however, Saigo simply wanted to play with his kids, hunt, and go fishing. He suffered from angina and also filariasis, a parasitic infection that gave him a grotesquely enlarged scrotum. Saigo spent a lot of time soaking in hot springs and strenuously avoiding politics. Saigos retirement project was the Shigakko, new private schools for young Satsuma samurai where the students studied infantry, artillery, and the Confucian classics. He funded but was not directly involved with the schools, so did not know that the students were becoming radicalized against the Meiji government. This opposition reached the boiling point in 1876 when the central government banned samurai from carrying swords and stopped paying them stipends. The Satsuma Rebellion By ending the samurai classs privileges, the Meiji government had essentially abolished their identity, allowing small-scale rebellions to erupt all over Japan. Saigo privately cheered on the rebels in other provinces, but stayed at his country house rather than returning to Kagoshima for fear that his presence might spark yet another rebellion. As tensions increased, in January 1877, the central government sent a ship to seize munitions stores from Kagoshima. The Shigakko students heard that the Meiji ship was coming and emptied the arsenal before it arrived.  Over the next several nights, they raided additional arsenals around Kagoshima, stealing weapons and ammunition, and to make matters worse, they discovered that the national police had sent a number of Satsuma natives to the Shigakko as central government spies. The spy leader confessed under torture that he was supposed to assassinate Saigo. Roused from his seclusion, Saigo felt that this treachery and wickedness in the imperial government required a response. He did not want to rebel, still feeling deep personal loyalty to the Meiji Emperor, but announced on February 7 that he would go to Tokyo to question the central government. The Shigakko students set out with him, bringing rifles, pistols, swords, and artillery. In all, about 12,000 Satsuma men marched north toward Tokyo, starting the Southwest War, or Satsuma Rebellion. The Death of the Last Samurai Saigos troops marched out confidently, sure that samurai in other provinces would rally to their side, but they faced an imperial army of 45,000 with access to unlimited supplies of ammunition. The rebels momentum soon stalled when they settled into a months-long siege of Kumamoto Castle, just 109 miles north of Kagoshima. As the siege wore on, the rebels ran low on munitions, prompting them to switch back to their swords. Saigo soon noted that he had fallen into their trap and taken the bait of settling into a siege. By March, Saigo realized that his rebellion was doomed. It did not bother him, though—he welcomed the opportunity to die for his principles. By May, the rebel army was in retreat southward, with the imperial army picking them off up and down Kyushu until September of 1877. On September 1, Saigo and his 300 surviving men moved to Shiroyama mountain above Kagoshima, which was occupied by 7,000 imperial troops. On September 24, 1877, at 3:45 am, the Emperors army launched its final assault in what is known as the Battle of Shiroyama. Saigo was shot through the femur in the last suicide charge and one of his companions cut off his head and hid it from the imperial troops to preserve his honor.   Although all of the rebels were killed, the imperial troops managed to locate Saigos buried head. Later woodcut prints depicted the rebel leader kneeling to commit traditional seppuku, but that would not have been possible given his filariasis and shattered leg. Saigos Legacy Saigo Takamori helped to usher in the modern era in Japan, serving as one of the three most powerful officials in the early Meiji government. However, he was never able to reconcile his love of samurai tradition with the demands of modernizing the nation. In the end, he was killed by the imperial army he organized. Today, he serves the thoroughly modern nation of Japan as a symbol of its samurai traditions—traditions that he reluctantly helped to destroy.